Here's what it means for the world, and how we should prepare. We are living in a time of unprecedented change, both technologically and politically. Businesses must adapt to navigate this new context safely - but there is no one-size-fits-all approach.
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As the example of energy infrastructure shows - it's a bit o But how can we ensure these cities' growth is sustainable?
From suicide, addiction and isolation to its impact on economic productivity, mental ill-health is a problem that affects us all in some way. But Princes William and Harry are shining a l Food packaging is vital for extending shelf lives and reducing food waste - but it is adding to our plastic crisis.
Could new, biodegradeable plant-based materials have the answer? The Platform for Accelerating the Circular Economy launched 18 months ago, and has already made great strides with projects around the world. Now it's time to scale those up - and we need Joy at work should be a key performance indicator, because it promotes an invaluable team bonding that affirms the contribution of every employee.
Friends of Ocean Action are working with scientists, tech developers and entrepreneurs to make ocean data available for the global public good, enabling governments to restore fisheries, India is a major engine of global economic growth. But whether the country can achieve inclusive progress and maximize its potential depends on these three pillars.
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Poverty is often blamed for outbreaks of mob violence from Latin America to Africa — but a closer look shows elites are using and controlling disorder for their own political ends. If the humanitarian sector is to meet the world's growing needs for intervention, it has to start planning in advance. Labour relations have become uncertain since the postwar period — but digital-age flexibility can be made to benefit both workers and executives. It is clear that we can no longer afford to think exclusively locally when it comes to reducing crime and violence; nor is this an efficient or effective approach.
Nonprofit organizations are the heartbeat of efforts to improve communities around the world — but they are chronically under-resourced. I accept. Davos Ceri Parker 25 Jan Poppie Mphuthing 25 Jan Environment and Natural Resource Security.
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Long asserted that Africa was so barbaric and chaotic that Africans were better off as slaves, since slavery saved them from the worse fates that, he claimed, would otherwise have consumed them in their homelands. That idea was generated by men who were attempting to justify their trade in human beings, yet today there are still well-meaning, progressive-minded people, in Europe and in Africa, who speculate as to whether democracy, the rule of law and human rights can ever properly take root in Africa.
Such views are testimony to the power of history and the potency of the race idea.
The Clear Connection Between Slavery And American Capitalism
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Order by newest oldest recommendations. Show 25 25 50 All. Reacting to the rationalism of the eighteenth-century Enlightenment, the religious revivals of the Second Great Awakening reignited Protestant spirituality during the early nineteenth century. The revivals incorporated worshippers into an expansive religious community that crisscrossed all regions of the United States and armed them with a potent evangelical mission.
Many emerged from these religious revivals with a conviction that human society could be changed to look more heavenly.
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They joined their spiritual networks to rapidly developing social reform networks that sought to alleviate social ills and eradicate moral vice. Tackling numerous issues, including alcoholism, slavery, and the inequality of women, reformers worked tirelessly to remake the world around them. While not all these initiatives were successful, the zeal of reform and the spiritual rejuvenation that inspired it were key facets of antebellum life and society. Revivalist preachers traveled on horseback, sharing the message of spiritual and moral renewal to as many as possible.
Residents of urban centers, rural farmlands, and frontier territories alike flocked to religious revivals and camp meetings, where intense physical and emotional enthusiasm accompanied evangelical conversion. The Second Great Awakening emerged in response to powerful intellectual and social currents.
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Camp meetings captured the democratizing spirit of the American Revolution, but revivals also provided a unifying moral order and new sense of spiritual community for Americans struggling with the great changes of the day. The market revolution, western expansion, and European immigration all challenged traditional bonds of authority, and evangelicalism promised equal measures of excitement and order. Revivals spread like wildfire throughout the United States, swelling church membership, spawning new Christian denominations, and inspiring social reform.
One of the earliest and largest revivals of the Second Great Awakening occurred in Cane Ridge, Kentucky, over a one-week period in August The Cane Ridge Revival drew thousands of people, and possibly as many as one of every ten residents of Kentucky. They preached from inside buildings, evangelized outdoors under the open sky, and even used tree stumps as makeshift pulpits, all to reach their enthusiastic audiences in any way possible.
Women, too, exhorted, in a striking break with common practice. Many revivalists abandoned the comparatively formal style of worship observed in the well-established Congregationalist and Episcopalian churches and instead embraced more impassioned forms of worship that included the spontaneous jumping, shouting, and gesturing found in new and alternative denominations.
The ranks of Christian denominations such as the Methodists, Baptists, and Presbyterians swelled precipitously alongside new denominations such as the Seventh-Day Adventist Church.
The evangelical fire reached such heights, in fact, that one swath of western and central New York state came to be known as the Burned-Over District. Charles Grandison Finney, the influential revivalist preacher who first coined the term, explained that the residents of this area had experienced so many revivals by different religious groups that that there were no more souls to awaken to the fire of spiritual conversion.
Removing the government support of churches created what historians call the American spiritual marketplace. Methodism achieved the most remarkable success, enjoying the most significant denominational increase in American history. By , Methodism was by far the most popular American denomination.
The Methodist denomination grew from fewer than one thousand members at the end of the eighteenth century to constitute 34 percent of all American church membership by the midnineteenth century. Methodists used itinerant preachers, known as circuit riders.
These men and the occasional woman won converts by pushing west with the expanding United States over the Alleghenies and into the Ohio River Valley, bringing religion to new settlers hungry to have their spiritual needs attended. Circuit riding took preachers into homes, meetinghouses, and churches, all mapped out at regular intervals that collectively took about two weeks to complete. Revolutionary ideals also informed a substantial theological critique of orthodox Calvinism that had far-reaching consequences for religious individuals and for society as a whole. Calvinists believed that all of humankind was marred by sin, and God predestined only some for salvation.
These attitudes began to seem too pessimistic for many American Christians. Worshippers increasingly began to take responsibility for their own spiritual fates by embracing theologies that emphasized human action in effecting salvation, and revivalist preachers were quick to recognize the importance of these cultural shifts.
Even more conservative spiritual leaders, such as Lyman Beecher of the Congregational Church, appealed to younger generations of Americans by adopting a less orthodox approach to Calvinist doctrine. This idea of spiritual egalitarianism was one of the most important transformations to emerge out of the Second Great Awakening. Spiritual egalitarianism dovetailed neatly with an increasingly democratic United States. In the process of winning independence from Britain, the revolution weakened the power of long-standing social hierarchies and the codes of conduct that went along with them.
The democratizing ethos opened the door for a more egalitarian approach to spiritual leadership. Indeed, their emphasis on spiritual egalitarianism over formal training enabled Methodists to outpace spiritual competition during this period. Methodists attracted more new preachers to send into the field, and the lack of formal training meant that individual preachers could be paid significantly less than a Congregationalist preacher with a divinity degree.
In addition to the divisions between evangelical and nonevangelical denominations wrought by the Second Great Awakening, the revivals and subsequent evangelical growth also revealed strains within the Methodist and Baptist churches. Each witnessed several schisms during the s and s as reformers advocated for a return to the practices and policies of an earlier generation. Many others left mainstream Protestantism altogether, opting instead to form their own churches. Self-declared prophets claimed that God had called them to establish new churches and introduce new or, in their understanding, restore lost teachings, forms of worship, and even scripture.
Borrowing from the Methodists a faith in the abilities of itinerant preachers without formal training, Smith dispatched early converts as missionaries to take the message of the Book of Mormon throughout the United States, across the ocean to England and Ireland, and eventually even farther abroad.
He attracted a sizable number of followers on both sides of the Atlantic and commanded them to gather to a center place, where they collectively anticipated the imminent second coming of Christ. Continued growth and near-constant opposition from both Protestant ministers and neighbors suspicious of their potential political power forced the Mormons to move several times, first from New York to Ohio, then to Missouri, and finally to Illinois, where they established a thriving community on the banks of the Mississippi River.
In Nauvoo, as they called their city, Smith moved even further beyond the bounds of the Christian orthodoxy by continuing to pronounce additional revelations and introducing secret rites to be performed in Mormon temples. Most controversially, Smith and a select group of his most loyal followers began taking additional wives Smith himself married at least thirty women.
Others challenged existing cultural customs in less radical ways. For individual worshippers, spiritual egalitarianism in revivals and camp meetings could break down traditional social conventions.